Tuesday, June 9, 2009

First attempts in the field of aviation


First attempts in the field of aviation

The desire of the man to fly comes from prehistoric times, since this one is overcome by the curiosity to know new places beyond which it inhabits and it discovers in the aerial flight a possibility of saving time and works.
Its capacity of observation takes to him to recognize in the same nature animal that are able to do something that it longs for, and begin the imitations of the flight of the birds, arise the calls men birds that consider that human the muscular force, used well, offers the possibility of flying just as these animal.

One of the oldest news about these men birds arrives to us through the Greek mythology in which one of its heroes. ícaro, son of Labyrinth escapes of the labyrinth of Crete with wings stuck with wax. but when approaching the Sun this one melts, and falls much to the water. Perhaps the moral of this mythological passage is that the intelligence of the man is very small before the mystery of the Nature; but what really it stands out it is the persistence of this one to reach what a chapter of the combined human investigation with a boldness sets out, and abre, that today is reality: the attempts to conquer the space.
What nobody knew in these times was that the heart of a sparrow needed to realise eight hundred beats per minute during the flight, something that the human machinery could reach.

In century XV, Leonardo Da Vinci proposes to increase the muscular one of the man with its system of handles and that meant most advanced of the technology of that time, but the results were not satisfactory and the machine of Gives Vinci did not have acceptance.
The first attempts that were realised successfully date from the November of 1783, when the 14 hours of that day the sky of Paris saw show, majestic one, a gigantic globe decorated in blue gold and. On board they went Pilatre de Rozier, a physicist of 29 years, and commander Francois Laurent, Marquess of Arlandes, and infantry officer. The globe, that was a gigantic structure of paper and fabric, was inflated with hot air generated by the fire located under the inner opening, which was as well fed by the travellers with dry straw which they took on board.

The flight lasted 26 minutes and got to lift about 1,000 meters on the city of Paris. Later the Montgolfíer, as the globe were called (in honor to the brothers Joseph and Étienne Montgolfier, that was first in sending a globe without crew, and to apply just to the shortage hydrogen gas to fill the interior of the same), touched earth in the outskirts of Paris, with its safe and sound occupants. The man had found the freedom, had come off itself the Earth.
The first woman who flew without no masculine company in a globe was a French, Elizabeth Thible, that in 1784 took off of Lyons. Soon she was followed by other many, like Jeanne Labrosse, that by itself piloted a globe in 1798, and which later she would be the wife of the conductive globe well-known Jacques Garnerin.
In 1890, Clément Ader constructed a flying machine called Eolo, with a steam motor of 20 HP, that drove a helix and had wings with the form of those of a bat. Ader declared to have realised flights the 9 of oct bre of 1890, of approximately 50 meters, but in fact when Ader wanted to make a demonstration before witnesses who would certificaran their feat, the apparatus did not manage to rise of the ground.
We cannot stop naming to Otto Lilienthal, that realised an enormous amount of flights in gliders, obtaining therefore a valuable experience that soon was taken advantage of for the development of the flights to motor.